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King Andrew III (r. 1290–1301)

Year 1290 (MCCXC) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.


By place



  • July 18Edict of Expulsion: King Edward I (Longshanks) orders all Jews (at this time probably numbering around 2,000) to leave the country by November 1 (All Saints' Day);[3] on the Hebrew calendar this is Tisha B'Av, a day that commemorates many calamities.
  • Quia Emptores, a statute passed by Edward I (Longshanks), puts an end to the practice of subinfeudations. The statute allows land to be sold according to royal approval, as long as the new owner answers directly to his lord or the king.
  • September – The 7-year-old Margaret (Maid of Norway), queen-designate and heir to the crown of Scotland, dies en route to the British Isles in Orkney – leading to a succession crisis known as Competitors for the crown of Scotland.
  • November 28Eleanor of Castile, wife of Edward I (Longshanks), dies while traveling in the North. She has been suffering from illness for some time, and the cold and dampness of the winter months probably aggravate her condition.
  • December – Edward I (Longshanks) travels with the body of Eleanor of Castile from Lincoln to London. Remembering his wife, Edward erects a series of crosses at each location that the body rests over night. These are known as the twelve Eleanor crosses.
  • Winter – The second of the Statutes of Mortmain are passed during the reign of Edward I (Longshanks), which prevents land from passing into the possession of the Church.


  • June – Genoa concludes a new commercial treaty with the Mamluks; five galleys sent by King James II (the Just) join the Venetian Crusader fleet (some 20 ships) on its way to Acre. On board of the fleet are Italian urban militias and mercenary forces under Seneschal Jean I de Grailly, who have fought for the Papal States in the so-called Italian Crusades.[4]
  • August – Italian Crusaders massacre Muslim merchants and peasants, and some local Christians in Acre. Some claim it began at a drunken party – others that a European husband found his wife making love to a Muslim. The barons and local knights try to rescue a few Muslims and take them to the safety of the castle, while some ringleaders are arrested.[5]
  • August 30 – Survivors and relatives of the massacre at Acre take bloodstained clothing to Sultan Qalawun (the Victorious) in Cairo, who demands that the leaders of the riot be handed over for trial. But the nobles refuse to send the ringleaders, Qalawun now got legal clearance from the religious authorities in Cairo to break the truce with Crusader states.[6]
  • October – Qalawun (the Victorious) orders a general mobilization of the Mamluk forces. In a council, is decided that a peace delegation is sent to Cairo under Guillaume de Beaujeu, Grand Master of the Knights Templar. But Qalawun demands huge compensation for those killed in Acre, and sends a Syrian army to the coast of Palestine, near Caesarea.[7]
  • November 10 – Qalawun (the Victorious) dies as the Egyptian Mamluk army sets out for Acre. He is succeeded by his eldest son Al-Ashraf Khalil as ruler of the Mamluk Sultanate. Kahlil orders his allies and tributaries in Syria to prepare for a campaign next spring. Governors and castle commanders are ordered to assemble siege equipment and armor.[8]


By topic

Art and Culture

Climate and Weather

  • Year without winter – An exceptionally rare instance of uninterrupted transition, from autumn to the following spring, in England and the mainland of Western Europe.[11]







  1. Template:Cite book
  2. Template:Cite book
  3. Mundill, Robin R. (2002). England's Jewish Solution: Experiment and Expulsion, 1262-1290. Cambridge University Press. Template:ISBN.
  4. David Nicolle (2005). Osprey: Acre 1291 - Bloody sunset of the Crusader states, p. 49. Template:ISBN.
  5. Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, p. 343. Template:ISBN.
  6. David Nicolle (2005). Osprey: Acre 1291 - Bloody sunset of the Crusader states, p. 52. Template:ISBN.
  7. Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, p. 343. Template:ISBN.
  8. Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, p. 344. Template:ISBN.
  9. Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History, p. 80. Primus Books. Template:ISBN.
  10. Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History, p. 151. Template:ISBN.
  11. Kington, J. Climate and Weather, HarperCollins Publishers, 2010.